Growth inhibitory potential of effective microorganism fermentation extract (EM-X) on cancer cells.

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Int J Mol Med. 2004 Nov; 14(5): 925-9
Chui CH, Cheng GY, Ke B, Lau FY, Wong RS, Kok SH, Fatima S, Cheung F, Cheng CH, Chan AS, Tang JC

The effective microorganism (EM-X) fermentation extract is derived from rice bran and seaweed extract. It has been shown to possess anti-oxidation activity both in vitro and in vivo. To our knowledge, the possible in vitro anti-cancer potential of EM-X has not been demonstrated. Here we showed that the double concentrate of EM-X (EM-X2) at concentrations of 20-30% by volume, had growth inhibitory activity on MDA-MB231 breast cancer cell line and K-562 chronic myelogenous leukaemia cell lines by [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2-H-tetrazolium, inner salt] (MTS) assay. No characteristic features of apoptosis could be observed morphologically. Colony formation assay illustrated that both MDA-MB231 breast cancer and K-562 CML cells lost part of their regeneration potential after treatment with EM-X2 at 30% concentration by volume for 24 h. At these concentrations, only slight growth inhibitory effect was observed in 293 human kidney fibroblast cells and in three non-malignant bone marrows. Intracellular nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assay showed that both MDA-MB231 breast cancer and K-562 CML cells had about 30% reduction of intracellular NBT after incubation with 30% of EM-X2. Increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) could be detected from both MDA-MB231 and K-562 cell lines after incubating with 30% of EM-X2. Taken together, our data suggested that EM-X could inhibit growth and reduce the regeneration potential of cancer cells, possibly through its antioxidation activity.

The Scotland Leukaemia Registry audit of incidence, diagnosis and clinical management of new patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia in 1999 and 2000.

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Scott Med J. 2004 Aug; 49(3): 87-90
Harrison SJ, Johnson PR, Holyoake TL

The management of CML has recently become increasingly complex. The Scotland Leukaemia Registry (SLR) sent questionnaires to all 26 Scottish haematology units, of which 18 (69%) responded. From January 1999 to December 2000, 64 new cases of CML were identified by the audit (incidence 0.64/100,00/yr), of which 46 were registered with the SLR. At diagnosis, all 18 units combined bone marrow examination with cytogenetics/FISH, but only 13 performed RT-PCR. Of four units that calculated the Hasford Score, only two used it to inform clinical decisions. 52% of patients entered clinical trials, 57% involving imatinib mesylate (IM). Of the 23 patients who were tissue typed, suitable donors were found for 18, 11 sibling, and 7 unrelated, representing 28% of the total patient population. Only 13/64 patients (20%) did not have a BMT donor identified or enter a clinical trial. Although 38% of units would consider reduced intensity allografting in patients > 60 years, no centres currently routinely tissue-type such patients. For first line therapy 56% of patients received hydroxyurea +/- interferon. Of the newer agents, 83% of units believed imatinib mesylate should be reserved for clinical trials, 83% would consider using oral ara-C and 89% pegylated-interferon.

Effect of St John’s wort on imatinib mesylate pharmacokinetics.

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Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Oct ; 76(4): 323-9
OBJECTIVE: Imatinib is a potent inhibitor of the Bcr-Abl and c- kit tyrosine kinases and is approved for the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Because imatinib is predominantly metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, its pharmacokinetics may be altered when it is coadministered with drugs or herbs (eg, St John’s wort) that modulate CYP3A4 activity.Thus we examined the effects of St John’s wort on imatinib pharmacokinetics. METHODS: This 2-period, open-label, fixed-sequence study was completed by 12 healthy subjects (6 men and 6 women) aged between 20 and 51 years. Each subject received 400 mg imatinib orally on study day 1, St John’s wort (300 mg 3 times daily) on days 4 to 17, and 400 mg imatinib again on day 15. Serial blood samples were obtained over a 72-hour period after each imatinib dose. Imatinib and N -desmethyl-imatinib (CGP 74588) were quantified in plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: St John’s wort administration increased imatinib clearance by 43% ( P < .001), from 12.5 +/- 3.6 L/h to 17.9 +/- 5.6 L/h; imatinib area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) extrapolated to infinity was decreased by 30%, from 34.5 +/- 9.5 microg . h/mL to 24.2 +/- 7.0 microg . h/mL ( P < .001). Imatinib half-life (12.8 hours versus 9.0 hours) and maximum concentration (C max ) (2.2 microg/mL versus 1.8 microg/mL) were also significantly decreased ( P < .005). N -desmethyl-imatinib C max was increased from 285 +/- 95 ng/mL to 318 +/- 95 ng/mL during St John’s wort dosing, but the AUC from 0 to 72 hours was not altered. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that St John’s wort increases imatinib clearance. Thus patients taking imatinib should avoid taking St John’s wort. Concomitant use of enzyme inducers, including St John’s wort, may necessitate an increase in the imatinib dose to maintain clinical effectiveness.

Targeted therapies for cancer 2004

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Am J Clin Pathol. 2004 Oct; 122(4): 598-609
Ross JS, Schenkein DP, Pietrusko R, Rolfe M, Linette GP, Stec J, Stagliano NE, Ginsburg GS, Symmans WF, Pusztai L, Hortobagyi GN

The regulatory agency approvals in the United States and Europe of imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) for patients with bcr/abl-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia, cetuximab (Erbitux) for patients with epidermal growth factor receptor overexpressing metastatic colorectal cancer, the antiangiogenesis agent bevacizumab (Avastin), and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade)–and the considerable public interest in new anticancer drugs that take advantage of specific genetic defects that render the malignant cells more likely to respond to specific treatment–are driving a new era of integrated diagnostics and therapeutics. The recent discovery of a drug response predicting activating mutation in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene for patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with gefitinib (Iressa) has intensified this interest. In this review, the history of targeted anticancer therapies is highlighted, with focus on the development of molecular diagnostics for hematologic malignancies and the emergence of trastuzumab (Herceptin), an antibody-based targeted therapy for HER-2/neu overexpressing metastatic breast cancer: The potential of pharmacogenomic strategies and the use of high-density genomic microarrays to classify and select therapy for cancer are briefly considered. This review also considers the widely held view that, in the next 5 to 10 years, the clinical application of molecular diagnostics will further revolutionize the drug discovery and development process; customize the selection, dosing, route of administration of existing and new therapeutic agents; and truly personalize medical care for cancer patients.


Pic Of The Day

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Chinese models present various beauty creations by local designers to kick off the 3rd China International Beauty Week in Beijing.