Dasatinib: a guide to its use in chronic myeloid leukemia in the EU.
BioDrugs. 2013 Jun;27(3):275-9
Authors: Keating GM, Lyseng-Williamson KA, McCormack PL, Keam SJ
Oral dasatinib (Sprycel(®)) is effective in the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or imatinib-resistant or imatinib-intolerant chronic-phase, accelerated-phase, or blast-phase CML. In particular, dasatinib is associated with better and faster responses than imatinib in patients with newly diagnosed chronic-phase CML. The response to dasatinib appears to be maintained in the longer-term. Dasatinib has an acceptable tolerability profile; it is associated with myelosuppression, with fluid retention being the most common nonhematologic adverse event. Thus, dasatinib is a highly effective, once-daily therapy for the first-line treatment of patients with chronic-phase CML and for the second-line treatment of imatinib-resistant or imatinib-intolerant CML.
PMID: 23549840 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
New paraneoplastic syndrome in chronic basophilic leukemia.
Int J Hematol. 2013 Apr;97(4):498-504
Authors: Cehreli C, Ates H, Cehreli R, Sercan Z, Demirkan F
Chronic basophilic leukemia (CBL) is an extremely rare disorder. A female patient presented with recurrent attacks of chills, fever and abdominal pain was found to have simultaneous cyclic oscillation in leukocyte counts and C-reactive protein values. She was initially diagnosed with familial Mediterranean fever and treated with colchicine. Diagnosis of CBL was established by morphologic studies of peripheral blood and bone marrow. Her febrile attacks recurred with marked elevation in serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) level when basophil counts climbed to peak levels during cyclic oscillation. Molecular studies by real-time PCR showed IL-6 gene expression in neoplastic basophils separated by magnetic-activated cell sorting infiltrating the bone marrow, suggesting that IL-6 is released by neoplastic basophils of an underlying CBL, resulting in a new paraneoplastic syndrome that mimics autoinflammatory disorders.
PMID: 23413035 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Chronic myelogenous leukemia, version 1.2014.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2013 Nov 1;11(11):1327-40
Authors: O’Brien S, Radich JP, Abboud CN, Akhtari M, Altman JK, Berman E, Deangelo DJ, Deininger M, Devine S, Fathi AT, Gotlib J, Jagasia M, Kropf P, Moore JO, Pallera A, Pinilla-Ibarz J, Reddy VV, Shah NP, Smith BD, Snyder DS, Wetzler M, Gregory K, Sundar H
The 2014 NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia recommend quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) standardized to International Scale (IS) as the preferred method for monitoring molecular response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. A BCR-ABL1 transcript level of 10% or less (IS) is now included as the response milestone at 3 and 6 months. Change of therapy to an alternate TKI is recommended for patients with BCR-ABL1 transcript levels greater than 10% (IS) at 3 months after primary treatment with imatinib. Continuing the same dose of TKI or switching to an alternate TKI are options for patients with BCR-ABL1 transcript levels greater than 10% (IS) at 3 months after primary treatment with dasatinib or nilotinib. The guidelines recommend 6-month evaluation with QPCR (IS) for patients with BCR-ABL1 transcript levels greater than 10% at 3 months. Monitoring with QPCR (IS) every 3 months is recommended for all patients, including those who meet response milestones at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months (BCR-ABL1 transcript level ?10% [IS] at 3 and 6 months, complete cytogenetic response at 12 and 18 months).
PMID: 24225967 [PubMed - in process]
Imatinib induces demethylation of miR-203 gene: an epigenetic mechanism of anti-tumor effect of imatinib.
Leuk Res. 2013 Oct;37(10):1278-86
Authors: Shibuta T, Honda E, Shiotsu H, Tanaka Y, Vellasamy S, Shiratsuchi M, Umemura T
MicroRNA (miRNA) is an important regulator of cellular proliferation, differentiation and death. Leukemia-specific signature of miRNAs suggests that epigenetic dysregulation of miRNAs is important for leukemogenesis. We focused on the role of DNA methylation of miR-203 which targets BCR-ABL1 mRNA. The microarray analysis showed that 48 miRNAs of CpG-rich 212 miRNAs were upregulated over 2-fold after imatinib treatment. Imatinib induced the demethylation of the miR-203 promoter region, resulting in low expression of targeted BCR-ABL1 gene, and loss of proliferation of leukemic cells. In conclusion, demethylation of miR-203 is one of the molecular mechanisms of imatinib-induced inhibition of BCR-ABL1-positive leukemic cells.
PMID: 23953880 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Pregnancies in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
Leuk Res. 2013 Oct;37(10):1216-21
Authors: Zhou L, You JH, Wu W, Li JM, Shen ZX, Wang AH
We presented our experience in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients who conceived children and/or became pregnant while receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). Among 7 male patients, 7 pregnancies resulted in the birth of 7 healthy babies. Among 18 female patients, 8 ended in elective abortion; 3 had spontaneous abortion, and 7 carried to term, resulting in the birth of 8 healthy babies. All children have normal growth and development. All patients remain in TKI therapy and in good response. It is suggested that female patients are advised to practice adequate contraception. No special precautions apply for male patients receiving TKI.
PMID: 23937984 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FoxO3a and nilotinib-induced erythroid differentiation of CML-BC cells.
Leuk Res. 2013 Oct;37(10):1309-14
Authors: Wang W, Li NN, Du Y, Lv FF, Lin GQ
We explored the potential involvement of FoxO3a activation in erythroid and granulocytic differentiation for Ph(+) cells of chronic myeloid leukemia blast crisis (CML BC). We demonstrate that FoxO3a activation in CML blast crisis (BC) cells by overexpressing FoxO3a leads to the maturation of CML BC cells. Hemoglobin production significantly increased upon FoxO3a activation in CML BC cells. FoxO3a activation upregulated erythroid surface protein (glycophorin A, GPA), but did not significantly modulate granulocytic markers (CD11b). Additionally, FoxO3a activation reduced the mRNA and protein expression of Tal1. Similar results were observed in cells that were given nilotinib. Our results indicate that FoxO3a activation may promote erythroid differentiation of BC cells via down-regulating Tal1 expression.
PMID: 23915976 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
XIAP and P-glycoprotein co-expression is related to imatinib resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia cells.
Leuk Res. 2013 Oct;37(10):1350-8
Authors: Silva KL, de Souza PS, Nestal de Moraes G, Moellmann-Coelho A, Vasconcelos Fda C, Maia RC
P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and XIAP co-expression has been discussed in the process of the acquisition of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer. Here, we evaluated XIAP and Pgp expression in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) samples, showing a positive correlation between them. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of imatinib in XIAP and Pgp expression using CML cell lines K562 (Pgp(-)) and K562-Lucena (Pgp(+)). Imatinib increased XIAP and Pgp expression in K562-Lucena cells, while in K562 cells a downregulation of these proteins was observed, suggesting that imatinib induces an increment of MDR phenotype of CML cells that previously exhibit high levels of Pgp/XIAP co-expression.
PMID: 23891189 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[Role of P13K/Akt pathway in chronic myeloid leukemia].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2013 Jan;34(1):80-2
Authors: He L, Tang J, Bu YJ
PMID: 23597475 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[The different characteristics of ABL kinase domain mutation in the Chinese Han nationality imatinib resistant Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2013 Jan;34(1):21-5
Authors: Shen HJ, He J, Qiu QC, Cen JN, Pan JL, Yao L, Ding ZX, Chen Y, Chen ZX
OBJECTIVE: To identify the distribution and differentiation of ABL kinase domain mutation in the Chinese Han nationality imatinib resistant chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph(+)ALL).
METHODS: Bone marrow or peripheral blood samples of 112 imatinib resistant CML patients and 21 Ph(+)ALL patients were obtained from the first affiliated hospital of Soochow university according to local law. Total RNA was extracted from the mononuclear cells using a TRIzol reagent. ABL kinase domain (KD) mutation was detected by direct sequencing.
RESULTS: Of the 112 imatinib resistant CML patients, 54.46%(61 cases) had ABL KD mutation. Twenty-three mutants were identified in 20 amino acid sites and 23.21% (26 cases) ABL KD mutations were in P-loop region. ABL KD mutations were also detected in 71.43% (15 cases) imatinib resistant Ph(+)ALL patients, with 10 mutations in 8 amino acid sites. The most frequent mutation was T315I (28.57%), followed by E255K/V (19.05%) and Y253F/H (14.29%). The frequency of T315I was much higher in imatinib resistant Ph(+) ALL than that in imatinib resistant CML (P = 0.001). Ph(+)ALL with additional chromosomal aberrations also had a higher rate of ABL KD mutation than that of CML (P = 0.010). Ph(+)ALL gained ABL KD mutation faster than CML (P < 0.010).
CONCLUSION: Chinese imatinib resistant CML and Ph(+)ALL patients had different characteristics in ABL KD mutation. The rate of ABL KD mutation in Ph(+)ALL with additional chromosomal aberrations was much higher than that of CML with additional chromosomal aberrations.
PMID: 23597459 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Proteomic Profiling Identifies Distinct Protein Patterns in Acute Myelogenous Leukemia CD34+CD38- Stem-Like Cells.
PLoS One. 2013;8(10):e78453
Authors: Kornblau SM, Qutub A, Yao H, York H, Qiu YH, Graber D, Ravandi F, Cortes J, Andreeff M, Zhang N, Coombes KR
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is believed to arise from leukemic stem-like cells (LSC) making understanding the biological differences between LSC and normal stem cells (HSC) or common myeloid progenitors (CMP) crucial to understanding AML biology. To determine if protein expression patterns were different in LSC compared to other AML and CD34+ populations, we measured the expression of 121 proteins by Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA) in 5 purified fractions from AML marrow and blood samples: Bulk (CD3/CD19 depleted), CD34-, CD34+(CMP), CD34+CD38+ and CD34+CD38-(LSC). LSC protein expression differed markedly from Bulk (n=31 cases, 93/121 proteins) and CD34+ cells (n= 30 cases, 88/121 proteins) with 54 proteins being significantly different (31 higher, 23 lower) in LSC than in either Bulk or CD34+ cells. Sixty-seven proteins differed significantly between CD34+ and Bulk blasts (n=69 cases). Protein expression patterns in LSC and CD34+ differed markedly from normal CD34+ cells. LSC were distinct from CD34+ and Bulk cells by principal component and by protein signaling network analysis which confirmed individual protein analysis. Potential targetable submodules in LSC included the proteins PU.1(SP1), P27, Mcl1, HIF1?, cMET, P53, Yap, and phospho-Stats 1, 5 and 6. Protein expression and activation in LSC differs markedly from other blast populations suggesting that studies of AML biology should be performed in LSC.
PMID: 24223100 [PubMed - in process]
Synergistic Anti-leukemic Effects of CK2 Inhibitors and Pentabromobenzylisothioureas In Vitro.
Anticancer Res. 2013 Nov;33(11):4891-9
Authors: Koronkiewicz M, Chilmonczyk Z, Kazimierczuk Z
BACKGROUND: Casein kinase-2 (CK2) inhibitors and pentabromobenzylisothioureas are promising anti-leukemic agents for treatment, both alone and in combination. In this study, we examined pro-apoptotic and cytostatic effects of three CK2 inhibitors: one known, 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (DMAT) and two new: 2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (MPT) and 2-aminoethyleneamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (AEAT), as well as of certain S-2,3,4,5,6-pentabromobenzylisothiouronium bromides: ZKK-3, ZKK-9, ZKK-13, against the human acute myelogenous leukemia cell line (KG-1). Cells were treated with CK2 inhibitors alone and in combination with the pentabromobenzylisothioureas.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Evaluation of synergistic and pro-apoptotic effects, mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) assay, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage assay, and cell-cycle progression of KG-1 cells were carried out using the flow cytometric technique and fluorescent microscopic analysis. Western blots were used for analysis of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) family proteins in whole-cell extracts.
RESULTS: The tested CK2 inhibitors DMAT, MPT, AEAT exhibited synergistic proapoptotic effect in combination with ZKK-3, ZKK-9 and ZKK-13. The agents revealed different pro-apoptotic efficacies against leukemia cell line KG-1. The highest apoptotic activity of the tested compounds was exhibited by AEAT.
CONCLUSION: Combination of CK2 inhibitors and pentabromobenzylisothioureas-induced synergistic anti-leukemic effects against KG-1 acute myelogenous leukemia cells in vitro.
PMID: 24222126 [PubMed - in process]
ANKRD26-related thrombocytopenia and myeloid malignancies.
Blood. 2013 Sep 12;122(11):1987-9
Authors: Noris P, Favier R, Alessi MC, Geddis AE, Kunishima S, Heller PG, Giordano P, Niederhoffer KY, Bussel JB, Podda GM, Vianelli N, Kersseboom R, Pecci A, Gnan C, Marconi C, Auvrignon A, Cohen W, Yu JC, Iguchi A, Miller Imahiyerobo A, Boehlen F, Ghalloussi D, De Rocco D, Magini P, Civaschi E, Biino G, Seri M, Savoia A, Balduini CL
PMID: 24030261 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Pathogenesis of disseminated intravascular coagulation in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia, and its treatment using recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin.
Int J Hematol. 2013 Nov 12;
Authors: Ikezoe T
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is an uncommon subtype of acute myelogenous leukemia characterized by the proliferation of blasts with distinct morphology, a specific balanced reciprocal translocation t(15;17), and life-threatening hemorrhage caused mainly by enhanced fibrinolytic-type disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) into anthracycline-based induction chemotherapy regimens has dramatically improved overall survival of individuals with APL, although hemorrhage-related death during the early phase of therapy remains a serious problem. Moreover, population-based studies have shown that the incidence of early death during induction chemotherapy is nearly 30 %, and the most common cause of death is associated with hemorrhage. Thus, development of a novel treatment strategy to alleviate abnormal coagulation in APL patients is urgently required. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rTM) comprises the active extracellular domain of TM, and has been used for treatment of DIC since 2008 in Japan. Use of rTM in combination with remission induction chemotherapy, including ATRA, produces potent resolution of DIC without exacerbation of bleeding tendency in individuals with APL. This review article discusses the pathogenesis and features of DIC caused by APL, as well as the possible anticoagulant and anti-leukemic action of rTM in APL patients.
PMID: 24217998 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Cancer-drug discovery and cardiovascular surveillance.
N Engl J Med. 2013 Nov 7;369(19):1779-81
Authors: Groarke JD, Cheng S, Moslehi J
PMID: 24180496 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Overcoming resistance to targeted anticancer drugs.
N Engl J Med. 2013 Nov 7;369(19):1852-3
Authors: Doroshow JH
PMID: 24180495 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
A phase 2 trial of ponatinib in Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemias.
N Engl J Med. 2013 Nov 7;369(19):1783-96
Authors: Cortes JE, Kim DW, Pinilla-Ibarz J, le Coutre P, Paquette R, Chuah C, Nicolini FE, Apperley JF, Khoury HJ, Talpaz M, DiPersio J, DeAngelo DJ, Abruzzese E, Rea D, Baccarani M, Müller MC, Gambacorti-Passerini C, Wong S, Lustgarten S, Rivera VM, Clackson T, Turner CD, Haluska FG, Guilhot F, Deininger MW, Hochhaus A, Hughes T, Goldman JM, Shah NP, Kantarjian H, PACE Investigators
BACKGROUND: Ponatinib is a potent oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor of unmutated and mutated BCR-ABL, including BCR-ABL with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor-refractory threonine-to-isoleucine mutation at position 315 (T315I). We conducted a phase 2 trial of ponatinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-positive ALL).
METHODS: We enrolled 449 heavily pretreated patients who had CML or Ph-positive ALL with resistance to or unacceptable side effects from dasatinib or nilotinib or who had the BCR-ABL T315I mutation. Ponatinib was administered at an initial dose of 45 mg once daily. The median follow-up was 15 months.
RESULTS: Among 267 patients with chronic-phase CML, 56% had a major cytogenetic response (51% of patients with resistance to or unacceptable side effects from dasatinib or nilotinib and 70% of patients with the T315I mutation), 46% had a complete cytogenetic response (40% and 66% in the two subgroups, respectively), and 34% had a major molecular response (27% and 56% in the two subgroups, respectively). Responses were observed regardless of the baseline BCR-ABL kinase domain mutation status and were durable; the estimated rate of a sustained major cytogenetic response of at least 12 months was 91%. No single BCR-ABL mutation conferring resistance to ponatinib was detected. Among 83 patients with accelerated-phase CML, 55% had a major hematologic response and 39% had a major cytogenetic response. Among 62 patients with blast-phase CML, 31% had a major hematologic response and 23% had a major cytogenetic response. Among 32 patients with Ph-positive ALL, 41% had a major hematologic response and 47% had a major cytogenetic response. Common adverse events were thrombocytopenia (in 37% of patients), rash (in 34%), dry skin (in 32%), and abdominal pain (in 22%). Serious arterial thrombotic events were observed in 9% of patients; these events were considered to be treatment-related in 3%. A total of 12% of patients discontinued treatment because of an adverse event.
CONCLUSIONS: Ponatinib had significant antileukemic activity across categories of disease stage and mutation status. (Funded by Ariad Pharmaceuticals and others; PACE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01207440 .).
PMID: 24180494 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
JAK of all trades: JAK2-STAT5 as novel therapeutic targets in BCR-ABL1+ chronic myeloid leukemia.
Blood. 2013 Sep 26;122(13):2167-75
Authors: Warsch W, Walz C, Sexl V
The transcription factor signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5) has an important and unique role in Breakpoint Cluster Region – Abelson 1 (BCR-ABL1)-driven neoplasias. STAT5 is an essential component in the signaling network that maintains the survival and growth of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells. In contrast, the function of the prototypical upstream kinase of STAT5, the Janus kinase JAK2, in CML is still under debate. Although there is widespread agreement that JAK2 is part of the signaling network downstream of BCR-ABL1, it is unclear whether and under what circumstances JAK2 inhibitors may be beneficial for CML patients. Recent studies in murine models have cast doubt on the importance of JAK2 in CML maintenance. Nevertheless, JAK2 has been proposed to have a central role in the cytokine signaling machinery that allows the survival of CML stem cells in the presence of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In this review, we summarize the current debate and provide an overview of the arguments on both sides of the fence. We present recent evidence showing that CML stem cells do not depend on BCR-ABL1 kinase activity but require the continuous support of the hematopoietic niche and its distinct cytokine environment and suggest that it has the potential to resolve the dispute.
PMID: 23926299 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Leukemia stem cells in personalized medicine.
Stem Cells. 2013 Nov 8;
Authors: Guzman ML, Allan JN
Despite increased comprehension of AML pathogenesis, current treatment strategies have done little to improve upon standard induction chemotherapy to induce long-term remissions. Since the identification of the leukemic stem cell, efforts have been placed on identifying therapeutically actionable pathways that distinguish this increasingly important cellular compartment. With the advent of increased genome sequencing efforts and phenotypic characterization, opportunities for personalized treatment strategies are rapidly emerging. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the understanding of leukemic stem cell biology and their potential for translation into clinically relevant therapeutics. NF-kappa B activation, Bcl-2 expression, oxidative and metabolic state, and epigenetic modifications all bear their own clinical implications. With advancements in genetic, epigenetic, and metabolic profiling, personalized strategies may be feasible in the near future to improve outcomes for AML patients. Stem Cells 2013.
PMID: 24214290 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Aclacinomycin A sensitizes K562 chronic myeloid leukemia cells to imatinib through p38MAPK-mediated erythroid differentiation.
PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e61939
Authors: Lee YL, Chen CW, Liu FH, Huang YW, Huang HM
Expression of oncogenic Bcr-Abl inhibits cell differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Differentiation therapy is considered to be a new strategy for treating this type of leukemia. Aclacinomycin A (ACM) is an antitumor antibiotic. Previous studies have shown that ACM induced erythroid differentiation of CML cells. In this study, we investigate the effect of ACM on the sensitivity of human CML cell line K562 to Bcr-Abl specific inhibitor imatinib (STI571, Gleevec). We first determined the optimal concentration of ACM for erythroid differentiation but not growth inhibition and apoptosis in K562 cells. Then, pretreatment with this optimal concentration of ACM followed by a minimally toxic concentration of imatinib strongly induced growth inhibition and apoptosis compared to that with simultaneous co-treatment, indicating that ACM-induced erythroid differentiation sensitizes K562 cells to imatinib. Sequential treatment with ACM and imatinib induced Bcr-Abl down-regulation, cytochrome c release into the cytosol, and caspase-3 activation, as well as decreased Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL expressions, but did not affect Fas ligand/Fas death receptor and procaspase-8 expressions. ACM/imatinib sequential treatment-induced apoptosis was suppressed by a caspase-9 inhibitor and a caspase-3 inhibitor, indicating that the caspase cascade is involved in this apoptosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ACM induced erythroid differentiation through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The inhibition of erythroid differentiation by p38MAPK inhibitor SB202190, p38MAPK dominant negative mutant or p38MAPK shRNA knockdown, reduced the ACM/imatinib sequential treatment-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis. These results suggest that differentiated K562 cells induced by ACM-mediated p38MAPK pathway become more sensitive to imatinib and result in down-regulations of Bcr-Abl and anti-apoptotic proteins, growth inhibition and apoptosis. These results provided a potential management by which ACM might have a crucial impact on increasing sensitivity of CML cells to imatinib in the differentiation therapeutic approaches.
PMID: 23613979 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Cytotoxicity of triphenyltin(IV) methyl- and ethylisopropyldithiocarbamate compounds in chronic myelogenus leukemia cell line (K-562).
Pak J Biol Sci. 2012 Sep 1;15(17):833-8
Authors: Awang N, Kamaludin NF, Hamid A, Mokhtar NW, Rajab NF
UNLABELLED: Studies on the discovery of new cancer treatment by using metal-based compounds such as tin (Sn) has now greatly being synthesized and evaluated to identify their effectiveness and suitability to be developed as a new anticancer drug.
APPROACH: This study was carried out to evaluate the cytotoxicity of triphenyltin(lV) methylisopropyldithiocarbamate (compound 1) and triphenyltin(IV) ethylisopropyldithiocarbamate (compound (2) on chronic myelogenus leukemia cells. The determination of their cytotoxicity (IC50) at different time of exposure and concentration was carried out through the employment of 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.
RESULTS: The IC50 values obtained for compound 1 and 2 following treatment at 24, 48 and 72 h were 0.660, 0.223, 0.370 microM and 0.677, 0.306, 0.360 microM, respectively. Cell morphological changes such as apoptotic and necrotic features were also been observed.
CONCLUSION: The compounds tested were found to give cytotoxic effect against chronic myelogenus leukemia (K-562) cell at a micromolar dose. Thus, further study on their specific mechanism of actions in the human cells should be carried out to elucidate their potential as an anticancer agent.
PMID: 24163967 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]